Despite advances in therapies available, cancer survivors are at risk of morbidity and mortality due to their disease and treatment. These can be exacerbated by lack of exercise, low physical fitness, obesity, and inadequate nutrition. Exercise and medical nutrition interventions may improve fitness and body composition and are generally well-tolerated by those receiving treatment. These interventions can also be tailored to the individual needs of cancer survivors and be delivered concurrently with different therapies. Most of the research in this field, however, focuses on cancer prevention or survivorship well past treatment, rather than the period shortly before or during treatment. Futhermore, few studies have principally targeted treatment-related outcomes, including quality of life. With funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the researchers involved in the ENICTO consortium seek to determine how exercise and/or medical nutrition interventions affect cancer treatment-related outcomes that occur in close proximity to cancer treatment.